Ecology is the science of mathematically quantifying the distribution and abundance of species in any given ecological unit. It is although classed as the branch of biology, ecology as a science is largely based on statistical science-commonly known as data science. In this regard, species ecology is primarily devoted to scientifically understanding the population parameters of species that are mostly facing global extinction and ecological crisis. These crises often stem from anthropogenic forces that are linked in human development- a misconception that attributed to free-market capitalism. Here at ‘Species Ecology’ the primary objective is the disentangle misconceptions with regards to the economic and or human development in the expense of species and ecological degradation which remain one of the most fundamental global crises linked with greenhouse gas emissions to habitat fragmentation, human poverty to global war to fight disease, malnutrition, natural disasters and many more. Species Ecology is mainly based on sound science of population ecology focused on understanding the distribution and population parameters of keystone mega vertebrates across neotropical and tropical ecoregions.